Community seems to be a popular concept right now. People all over the United States are realizing that sprawling, monolithic, and unsatisfying development—the kind that has been dominant for the last half-century—can be modified and improved. Dozens of books have been written on this subject, and from many different perspectives, such as transportation, health and fitness, land use, and so on. What is happening to drive this awareness and desire for change, and what makes a community livable and pleasant?
Well, from my perspective, the desire for a real “community” springs from the crap so many Americans have to live with. In between the “bucolic” countryside and the walkable urban downtown is a mess of development that is entirely car-focused. Christopher Leinberger, in The Option of Urbanism, calls it “drivable sub-urban” development. We also call it sprawl.
It’s made up of gigantic neighborhoods of similarly styled houses, and nothing but houses. Then across a busy four-lane highway, a “big-box” retail center, with acres of asphalt parking lots. It’s low-density, large-lot development that gobbles up open land. Walking or riding a bike in these areas is either unfeasible because the distances are too great, or the heavy traffic on multi-lane streets and highways discourages anyone not driving a car. It’s either too far or doesn’t feel safe. It’s not healthy, either.
Since 1960, “the overweight population has doubled, the obese population has increased 5 fold and the population with extreme or morbid obesity has increased by a factor of nearly 12!” (Downey Obesity Report)
According to the Centers for Disease Control (2000), “In the USA the proportion of children who walk or bike to school declined between 1969 (42%) and 2001 (16%) resulting in less exercise.”
Why we ended up with this development is a topic for another blog post, but people can see that drivable sub-urban development is not healthy, and for many it is not pleasant. Let’s look at an alternative model for development, one that is designed for humans and not cars.
The American Institute of Architects has created 10 Principles for Livable Communities that help us make our communities pleasant, functional, and human centered. Check out the Center for Communities by Design for more information and more detail on these principles.
1. Design on a Human Scale
Compact, pedestrian-friendly communities allow residents to walk to shops, services, cultural resources, and jobs and can reduce traffic congestion and benefit people’s health.
2. Provide Choices
People want variety in housing, shopping, recreation, transportation, and employment. Variety creates lively neighborhoods and accommodates residents in different stages of their lives.
3. Encourage Mixed-Use Development
Integrating different land uses and varied building types creates vibrant, pedestrian-friendly and diverse communities.
4. Preserve Urban Centers
Restoring, revitalizing, and infilling urban centers takes advantage of existing streets, services and buildings and avoids the need for new infrastructure. This helps to curb sprawl and promote stability for city neighborhoods.
5. Vary Transportation Options
Giving people the option of walking, biking and using public transit, in addition to driving, reduces traffic congestion, protects the environment and encourages physical activity.
6. Build Vibrant Public Spaces
Citizens need welcoming, well-defined public places to stimulate face-to-face interaction, collectively celebrate and mourn, encourage civic participation, admire public art, and gather for public events.
7. Create a Neighborhood Identity
A “sense of place” gives neighborhoods a unique character, enhances the walking environment, and creates pride in the community.
8. Protect Environmental Resources
A well-designed balance of nature and development preserves natural systems, protects waterways from pollution, reduces air pollution, and protects property values.
9. Conserve Landscapes
Open space, farms, and wildlife habitat are essential for environmental, recreational, and cultural reasons.
10. Design Matters
Design excellence is the foundation of successful and healthy communities.
It’s interesting to note that most of these principles, if not all, are simply a return to the way we used to build cities. Not all of us have forgotten what makes a livable community.
The Farmhouse Media is all about living sustainably with
- green building
- green cities