Whole Tree Structures by Roald Gundersen

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Architect and builder Roald Gundersen builds what he calls “whole tree structures,” including homes and commercial buildings. Lately he and his team have been testing the design properties of branched columns at the Forest Products Lab in Madison, Wisconsin.

The Farmhouse Media is all about living sustainably through

  • green building

  • green cities

  • permaculture

Learning Center Built from Straw Bales and Whole Trees

Whole Trees Architecture and Structures.

Learning Center at Angelic Organics designed and built by Roald Gundersen and Whole Trees Architecture and Structures.

Whole Trees Architecture and Structures creates some beautiful, earthy buildings. They use unmilled, whole trees that grow quickly and are a renewable resource.

 

The Farmhouse Media is all about living sustainably through

  • green building

  • green cities

  • permaculture

We Need Cheap Green Homes

A Cheap Green Home is a right-sized, energy-frugal house made from materials that represent the greenest practical choice. With a hefty budget, of course, anything is possible. A tight budget, though, demands ingenuity. And an affordable green home—the “holy grail” for homebuilding in this land of bloated plastic McMansions, is now a reality.

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This modern home built from a shipping container solves multiple problems. Factory assembly is more efficient, faster, and thus cheaper than traditional on-site construction. The foundation can be anything from a full basement to a system of posts. If you need more space, add more modules.

What is “green” anyway?

I think of “green” in terms of design elements, material choices, and methods. A green house builds in green features that are hard to retrofit later. It’s easier to site a house for passive solar gain than try to capture solar gain with renovations later. In contrast, you can add a photovoltaic system later with little hassle.

The green approach can be perplexing at times. Adding insulation enables the house to maintain a comfortable temperature with less energy. Some types of insulation, however, contribute heavily to global warming in their manufacture. You can see that it’s a balancing act, as each building has an impact on the planet. How small can we make that impact?

We can follow some standard practices:

  • Make it the the right size.
  • Make it tight.
  • Insulate.
  • Ventilate.
  • Use passive solar heating and passive cooling as much as possible.
  • Use the most durable materials you can afford.

Here are some examples of different approaches to a Green Home—cheap or not.

The “Standard” Green Home

You can build a remarkably efficient house with mostly standard design, methods, and materials. The Bircher Home in De Pere, Wisconsin, is a fine example. The house design incorporates passive solar gain and passive cooling, but looks like a conventional suburban house, apart from a small PV system and a solar thermal system.

Standard framing with 2×6 studs and cellulose insulation yields R-20 walls and R-44 roof. The house is well sealed, using foam and caulk, an infiltration barrier, and vapor barrier. A blower-door test rated the infiltration rate at 765 cfm, about half the typical rate at the time.

The result? The home uses 40% less energy than a comparable home in the area, and the $100/square foot cost, in 1999 dollars, is reasonable. You can get a normal-looking, high-performing house for not a lot of extra money.

The Advanced Green Home

The easiest way to get into a green home, if you can afford it, is to simply buy one from an innovative builder like Carter Scott. You’ll get a very green home that will perform well. And even though some of the green features, such as photovoltaics, add to the cost, you may be able to get an Energy Efficient Mortgage (EEM). This specialized mortgage increases the amount you’re able to borrow for a house that has energy-saving features that add to the up-front cost. The price? Market rate homes start at $289,900.

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Scott’s company, Transformations, builds zero energy homes in the Northeast U.S. They’re fairly small and a basic rectangular shape, with R-50 double-stud walls and R-64 roofs with spray foam and cellulose.

For heating and cooling, Scott has been using two mini-split heat pumps for the entire house. That’s a great cost savings over a furnace/AC system, and results in a simple, efficient, compact system. A photovoltaic system is sized to produce all the electricity each home needs. The homes are grid-tied, so excess electricity can feed into the energy grid.

What’s not green? His windows are cheap and they may not last long. The homes use vinyl siding, but you can go with fiber-cement siding for about $10,000 extra. Overall, Transformations is determining what works and what doesn’t in green home construction. And this approach is how we learn the most, from a production builder who tries new ideas and evaluates those ideas and the home’s performance after a year.

The Funky Green Home

The main floor of the NewenHouse.

The main floor of the NewenHouse.

Other ways to create a green home, cheap or not, I’ve covered with Jon Passi’s self-built, off-grid home, and with Sonya Newenhouse’s Passive House. Neither is actually cheap, but each is a functional and attractive way to a green, net-zero home. I can’t really evaluate how green they are from a materials standpoint, but Sonya’s house has a small footprint at about 25 feet square, so it’s definitely greener than a larger home. Jon’s home was framed with locally cut wood, which is a green choice. His house would be greener, in a way, if if were grid-tied, so his excess production could go to use and not to waste, but it’s very green as is.

Another approach is architect and builder Roald Gundersen’s “whole tree” building method. This approach uses unmilled, small-diameter, fast growing trees for the framing. Walls are often done with earth plaster, and roofs are often green. These are custom creations, but with extremely green materials choices.

A small, whole-tree building by Roald Gundersen.

A small, whole-tree building by Roald Gundersen.

roald bookend

Another of Roald Gundersen’s whole-tree structures.

Resources

Bircher home

Pretty Good House

NewenHouse

Passi Home

99K House

Carter Scott

Seattle’s first net-zero home

The Farmhouse Media is all about living sustainably with

  • green building
  • permaculture
  • outdoor recreation.